Xylene

o-Xylene, along with m- and p-xylene, is one of three isomers of xylene. Xylenes are used in the production of ethylbenzene, as solvents in paints and coatings, and as a gasoline additive.

Appearance: Colorless liquid or gas.

Odor: Sweet. Odorless at health effects levels.

Sources

Mobile: Automobiles.

Stationary: Industrial sources, volatilization of solvents.

Indoors: Synthetic fragrances and paints.

Exposure effects

Short-term (acute): Light exposure: Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, gastrointestinal effects, neurological effects.

Medium to high exposure: Central nervous system toxicity, pulmonary effects, and effects on the liver and kidneys.

Long-term (chronic): Central nervous system effects such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, tremors, and lack of coordination; respiratory, cardiovascular, and kidney effects. Carcinogenicity is unknown.

Health Standards

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Effects Screening Level:

Short term (1 hour): 1,700 parts per billion (ppb).

Long term (1 year): 140 ppb.

Odor: 380 ppb.

 

References

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/xylenes.pdf

https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/iris_documents/documents/subst/0270_summary.pdf

https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/iris_documents/documents/toxreviews/0270tr.pdf

http://tceq.com/toxicology/esl/list_main.html